What is the proper response for a NULL scan if the port is closed?
Closed ports respond to a NULL scan with a reset.
Which of the following systems would not respond correctly to an nmap XMAS scan?
When running a XMAS Scan, if a RST packet is received, the port is considered closed, while no response means it is open|filtered. The big downside is that not all systems follow RFC 793 to the letter. A number of systems send RST responses to the probes regardless of whether the port is open or not. This causes all of the ports to be labeled closed. Major operating systems that do this are Microsoft Windows, many Cisco devices, BSDI, and IBM OS/400.
Name two software tools used for OS guessing? (Choose two.
Nmap and Queso are the two best-known OS guessing programs. OS guessing software has the ability to look at peculiarities in the way that each vendor implements the RFC's. These differences are compared with its database of known OS fingerprints. Then a best guess of the OS is provided to the user.
Which Windows system tool checks integrity of critical files that has been digitally signed by Microsoft?
The following excerpt is taken from a honeyput log. The log captures activities across three days. There are several intrusion attempts; however, a few are successful. Study the log given below and answer the following question:
(Note: The objective of this questions is to test whether the student has learnt about passive OS fingerprinting (which should tell them the OS from log captures): can they tell a SQL injection attack signature; can they infer if a user ID has been created by an attacker and whether they can read plain source – destination entries from log entries.)
What can you infer from the above log?
What does a type 3 code 13 represent?(Choose two.
Type 3 code 13 is destination unreachable administratively prohibited. This type of message is typically returned from a device blocking a port.
While performing ping scans into a target network you get a frantic call from the organization’s security team. They report that they are under a denial of service attack. When you stop your scan, the smurf attack event stops showing up on the organization’s IDS monitor. How can you modify your scan to prevent triggering this event in the IDS?
Scanning the broadcast address makes the scan target all IP addresses on that subnet at the same time.
_________ is one of the programs used to wardial.
ToneLoc is one of the programs used to wardial. While this is considered an "old school" technique, it is still effective at finding backdoors and out of band network entry points.
Peter extracts the SIDs list from Windows 2000 Server machine using the hacking tool “SIDExtractor”. Here is the output of the SIDs:
From the above list identify the user account with System Administrator privileges.
The SID of the built-in administrator will always follow this example: S-1-5-domain-500
A person approaches a network administrator and wants advice on how to send encrypted email from home. The end user does not want to have to pay for any license fees or manage server services. Which of the following is the most secure encryption protocol that the network administrator should recommend?
Which of the following commands runs snort in packet logger mode?
Note: If you want to store the packages in binary mode for later analysis use ./snort -l ./log -b
You are manually conducting Idle Scanning using Hping2. During your scanning you notice that almost every query increments the IPID regardless of the port being queried. One or two of the queries cause the IPID to increment by more than one value. Why do you think this occurs?
If the IPID is incremented by more than the normal increment for this type of system it means that the system is interacting with some other system beside yours and has sent packets to an unknown host between the packets destined for you.
A very useful resource for passively gathering information about a target company is:
A, C & D are "Active" scans, the question says: "Passively"
The use of alert thresholding in an IDS can reduce the volume of repeated alerts, but introduces which of the following vulnerabilities?
A specific site received 91 ICMP_ECHO packets within 90 minutes from 47 different sites. 77 of the ICMP_ECHO packets had an ICMP ID:39612 and Seq:57072. 13 of the ICMP_ECHO packets had an ICMP ID:0 and Seq:0. What can you infer from this information?
You have initiated an active operating system fingerprinting attempt with nmap against a target system:
What operating system is the target host running based on the open ports shown above?
The system is reachable as an active directory domain controller (port 389, LDAP)
Use the traceroute results shown above to answer the following question:
The perimeter security at targetcorp.com does not permit ICMP TTL-expired packets out.
As seen in the exhibit there is 2 registrations with timeout, this tells us that the firewall filters packets where the TTL has reached 0, when you continue with higher starting values for TTL you will get an answer from the target of the traceroute.
Joe Hacker is going wardriving. He is going to use PrismStumbler and wants it to go to a GPS mapping software application. What is the recommended and well-known GPS mapping package that would interface with PrismStumbler?
Select the best answer.
GPSDrive is a Linux GPS mapping package. It recommended to be used to send PrismStumbler data to so that it can be mapped. GPSMap is a generic term and not a real software package. WinPcap is a packet capture library for Windows. It is used to capture packets and deliver them to other programs for analysis. As it is for Windows, it isn't going to do what Joe Hacker is wanting to do. Microsoft Mappoint is a Windows application. PrismStumbler is a Linux application. Thus, these two are not going to work well together.
What do you call a system where users need to remember only one username and password, and be authenticated for multiple services?
Single sign-on (SSO) is a specialized form of software authentication that enables a user to authenticate once and gain access to the resources of multiple software systems.
Tess King is making use of Digest Authentication for her Web site. Why is this considered to be more secure than Basic authentication?
Digest access authentication is one of the agreed methods a web page can use to negotiate credentials with a web user (using the HTTP protocol). This method builds upon (and obsoletes) the basic authentication scheme, allowing user identity to be established without having to send a password in plaintext over the network.
A program that defends against a port scanner will attempt to:
Rebecca has noted multiple entries in her logs about users attempting to connect on ports that are either not opened or ports that are not for public usage. How can she restrict this type of abuse by limiting access to only specific IP addresses that are trusted by using one of the built-in Linux Operating System tools?
ipchains is a free software based firewall for Linux. It is a rewrite of Linux's previous IPv4 firewalling code, ipfwadm. In Linux 2.2, ipchains is required to administer the IP packet filters. ipchains was written because the older IPv4 firewall code used in Linux 2.0 did not work with IP fragments and didn't allow for specification of protocols other than TCP, UDP, and ICMP.
Vulnerability mapping occurs after which phase of a penetration test?
The order should be Passive information gathering, Network level discovery, Host scanning and Analysis of host scanning.
The following exploit code is extracted from what kind of attack?
This is a buffer overflow with it’s payload in hex format.
Which of the following is not an effective countermeasure against replay attacks?
A replay attack is a form of network attack in which a valid data transmission is maliciously or fraudulently repeated or delayed. Effective countermeasures should be anything that makes it hard to delay or replay the packet (time stamps and sequence numbers) or anything that prove the package is received as it was sent from the original sender (digital signature)
You are the security administrator for a large network. You want to prevent attackers from running any sort of traceroute into your DMZ and discover the internal structure of publicly accessible areas of the network.
How can you achieve this?
When you run a traceroute to a target network address, you send a UDP packet with one time to live (TTL) to the target address. The first router this packet hits decreases the TTL to 0 and rejects the packet. Now the TTL for the packet is expired. The router sends back an ICMP message type 11 (Exceeded) code 0 (TTL--Exceeded) packet to your system with a source address. Your system displays the round-trip time for that first hop and sends out the next UDP packet with a TTL of 2.
This process continues until you receive an ICMP message type 3 (Unreachable) code 3 (Port--Unreachable) from the destination system. Traceroute is completed when your machine receives a Port-Unreachable message.
If you receive a message with three asterisks [* * *] during the traceroute, a router in the path doesn't return ICMP messages. Traceroute will continue to send UDP packets until the destination is reached or the maximum number of hops is exceeded.
A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a buffer (temporary data storage area) then it was intended to hold.
What is the most common cause of buffer overflow in software today?
Technically, a buffer overflow is a problem with the program's internal implementation.
You visit a website to retrieve the listing of a company's staff members. But you can not find it on the website. You know the listing was certainly present one year before. How can you retrieve information from the outdated website?
Archive.org mirrors websites and categorizes them by date and month depending on the crawl time. Archive.org dates back to 1996, Google is incorrect because the cache is only as recent as the latest crawl, the cache is over-written on each subsequent crawl. Download the website is incorrect becausethat's the same as what you see online. Visiting customer partners websites is just bogus. The answer is then Firmly, C, archive.org
Study the log given in the exhibit,
Precautionary measures to prevent this attack would include writing firewall rules. Of these firewall rules, which among the following would be appropriate?
You only want your or your ISP’s outside DNS to be able to contact your inside DNS. All other traffic should be directed against the outside DNS.
Peter is a Network Admin. He is concerned that his network is vulnerable to a smurf attack. What should Peter do to prevent a smurf attack?
Select the best answer.
Unicasts are one-to-one IP transmissions, by disabling this he would disable most network transmissions but still not prevent the smurf attack. Turning of multicast or fragmentation on the router has nothing to do with Peter’s concerns as a smurf attack uses broadcast, not multicast and has nothing to do with fragmentation. Anti-virus protection will not help prevent a smurf attack. A smurf attack is a broadcast from a spoofed source. If directed broadcasts are enabled on the destination all the computers at the destination will respond to the spoofed source, which is really the victim. Disabling directed broadcasts on a router can prevent the attack.
Carl has successfully compromised a web server from behind a firewall by exploiting a vulnerability in the web server program. He wants to proceed by installing a backdoor program. However, he is aware that not all inbound ports on the firewall are in the open state.
From the list given below, identify the port that is most likely to be open and allowed to reach the server that Carl has just compromised.
Port 53 is used by DNS and is almost always open, the problem is often that the port is opened for the hole world and not only for outside DNS servers.
Sally is a network admin for a small company. She was asked to install wireless accesspoints in the building. In looking at the specifications for the access-points, she sees that all of them offer WEP. Which of these are true about WEP?
Select the best answer.
WEP is intended to make a WLAN as secure as a LAN but because a WLAN is not constrained by wired, this makes access much easier. Also, WEP has flaws that make it less secure than was once thought.WEP does not offer end-to-end security. It only attempts to protect the wireless portion of the network.
You are doing IP spoofing while you scan your target. You find that the target has port 23 open. Anyway you are unable to connect. Why?
The question is not telling you what state the port is being reported by the scanning utility, if the program used to conduct this is nmap, nmap will show you one of three states – “open”, “closed”, or “filtered” a port can be in an “open” state yet filtered, usually by a stateful packet inspection filter (ie. Netfilter for linux, ipfilter for bsd). C and D to make any sense for this question, their bogus, and B, “You cannot spoof + TCP”, well you can spoof + TCP, so we strike that out.
The Slammer Worm exploits a stack-based overflow that occurs in a DLL implementing the Resolution Service.
Which of the following Database Server was targeted by the slammer worm?
W32.Slammer is a memory resident worm that propagates via UDP Port 1434 and exploits a vulnerability in SQL Server 2000 systems and systems with MSDE 2000 that have not applied the patch released by Microsoft Security Bulletin MS02-039.
Which of the following statements are true regarding N-tier architecture? (Choose two.)
Which of the following is a hashing algorithm?
What type of port scan is represented here.
After a client sends a connection request (SYN) packet to the server, the server will respond (SYN-ACK) with a sequence number of its choosing, which then must be acknowledged (ACK) by the client. This sequence number is predictable; the attack connects to a service first with its own IP address, records the sequence number chosen, and then opens a second connection from a forged IP address. The attack doesn't see the SYN-ACK (or any other packet) from the server, but can guess the correct responses. If the source IP address is used for authentication, then the attacker can use the one-sided communication to break into the server. What attacks can you successfully launch against a server using the above technique?
Which of the following are valid types of rootkits? (Choose three.)
Which of the following can take an arbitrary length of input and produce a message digest output of 160 bit?
Bank of Timbuktu is a medium-sized, regional financial institution in Timbuktu. The bank has deployed a new Internet-accessible Web application recently. Customers can access their account balances, transfer money between accounts, pay bills and conduct online financial business using a Web browser.
John Stevens is in charge of information security at Bank of Timbuktu. After one month in production, several customers have complained about the Internet enabled banking application. Strangely, the account balances of many of the bank's customers had been changed! However, money hasn't been removed from the bank; instead, money was transferred between accounts. Given this attack profile, John Stevens reviewed the Web application's logs and found the following entries:
What kind of attack did the Hacker attempt to carry out at the bank?
Which of the following represent weak password? (Select 2 answers)
Oregon Corp is fighting a litigation suit with Scamster Inc. Oregon has assigned a private investigative agency to go through garbage, recycled paper, and other rubbish at Scamster's office site in order to find relevant information. What would you call this kind of activity?
What command would you type to OS fingerprint a server using the command line?
Which of the following are password cracking tools? (Choose three.)
How do you defend against ARP Poisoning attack? (Select 2 answers)
Here is the ASCII Sheet.
You want to guess the DBO username juggyboy (8 characters) using Blind SQL Injection technique.
What is the correct syntax?
John runs a Web server, IDS and firewall on his network. Recently his Web server has been under constant hacking attacks. He looks up the IDS log files and sees no intrusion attempts but the Web server constantly locks up and needs rebooting due to various brute force and buffer overflow attacks but still the IDS alerts no intrusion whatsoever. John becomes suspicious and views the Firewall logs and he notices huge SSL connections constantly hitting his Web server. Hackers have been using the encrypted HTTPS protocol to send exploits to the Web server and that was the reason the IDS did not detect the intrusions. How would John protect his network from these types of attacks?
Neil is an IT security consultant working on contract for Davidson Avionics. Neil has been hired to audit the network of Davidson Avionics. He has been given permission to perform any tests necessary. Neil has created a fake company ID badge and uniform. Neil waits by one of the company's entrance doors and follows an employee into the office after they use their valid access card to gain entrance. What type of social engineering attack has Neil employed here?
A covert channel is a channel that
Passive reconnaissance involves collecting information through which of the following?
What is GINA?
In computing, GINA refers to the graphical identification and authentication library, a component of some Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides secure authentication and interactive logon services.
What is the algorithm used by LM for Windows2000 SAM?
Okay, this is a tricky question. We say B, DES, but it could be A “MD4” depending on what their asking - Windows 2000/XP keeps users passwords not "apparently", but as hashes, i.e. actually as "check sum" of the passwords. Let's go into the passwords keeping at large. The most interesting structure of the complex SAM-file building is so called V-block. It's size is 32 bytes and it includes hashes of the password for the local entering: NT Hash of 16-byte length, and hash used during the authentication of access to the common resources of other computers LanMan Hash, or simply LM Hash, of the same 16-byte length. Algorithms of the formation of these hashes are following:
NT Hash formation:
1. User password is being generated to the Unicode-line.
2. Hash is being generated based on this line using MD4 algorithm.
3. Gained hash in being encoded by the DES algorithm, RID (i.e. user identifier) had been used as a key. It was necessary for gaining variant hashes for users who have equal passwords. You remember that all users have different RIDs (RID of the Administrator's built in account is 500, RID of the Guest's built in account is 501, all other users get RIDs equal 1000, 1001, 1002, etc.).
LM Hash formation:
1. User password is being shifted to capitals and added by nulls up to 14-byte length.
2. Gained line is divided on halves 7 bytes each, and each of them is being encoded separately using DES, output is 8-byte hash and total 16-byte hash.
3. Then LM Hash is being additionally encoded the same way as it had been done in the NT Hash formation algorithm step 3.
What do Trinoo, TFN2k, WinTrinoo, T-Sight, and Stracheldraht have in common?
All are DDOS tools.
Joseph was the Web site administrator for the Mason Insurance in New York, who's main Web site was located at www.masonins.com. Joseph uses his laptop computer regularly to administer the Web site.
One night, Joseph received an urgent phone call from his friend, Smith. According to Smith, the main Mason Insurance web site had been vandalized! All of its normal content was removed and replaced with an attacker's message ''Hacker Message: You are dead! Freaks!
From his office, which was directly connected to Mason Insurance's internal network, Joseph surfed to the Web site using his laptop. In his browser, the Web site looked completely intact. No changes were apparent. Joseph called a friend of his at his home to help troubleshoot the problem. The Web site appeared defaced when his friend visited using his DSL connection. So, while Smith and his friend could see the defaced page, Joseph saw the intact Mason Insurance web site. To help make sense of this problem, Joseph decided to access the Web site using his dial-up ISP. He disconnected his laptop from the corporate internal network and used his modem to dial up the same ISP used by Smith.
After his modem connected, he quickly typed www.masonins.com in his browser to reveal the following web page:
Y0u @re De@d! Fre@ks!
After seeing the defaced Web site, he disconnected his dial-up line, reconnected to the internal network, and used Secure Shell (SSH) to log in directly to the Web server. He ran Tripwire against the entire Web site, and determined that every system file and all the Web content on the server were intact.
How did the attacker accomplish this hack?
External calls for the Web site has been redirected to another server by a successful DNS poisoning.
Attackers can potentially intercept and modify unsigned SMB packets, modify the traffic and forward it so that the server might perform undesirable actions. Alternatively, the attacker could pose as the server or client after a legitimate authentication and gain unauthorized access to data. Which of the following is NOT a means that can be used to minimize or protect against such an attack?
LM authentication is not as strong as Windows NT authentication so you may want to disable its use, because an attacker eavesdropping on network traffic will attack the weaker protocol. A successful attack can compromise the user's password. How do you disable LM authentication in Windows XP?
What is the BEST alternative if you discover that a rootkit has been installed on one of your computers?
If a rootkit is discovered, you will need to reload from known good media. This typically means performing a complete reinstall.
Global deployment of RFC 2827 would help mitigate what classification of attack?
RFC 2827 - Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing
Which of the following tools are used for enumeration? (Choose three.)
USER2SID, SID2USER, and DumpSec are three of the tools used for system enumeration. Others are tools such as NAT and Enum. Knowing which tools are used in each step of the hacking methodology is an important goal of the CEH exam. You should spend a portion of your time preparing for the test practicing with the tools and learning to understand their output.
_________ is a tool that can hide processes from the process list, can hide files, registry entries, and intercept keystrokes.
Rootkits are tools that can hide processes from the process list, can hide files, registry entries, and intercept keystrokes.
What happens when one experiences a ping of death?
A hacker can send an IP packet to a vulnerable machine such that the lastfragment contains an offest where (IP offset *8) + (IP data length)>65535.This means that when the packet is reassembled, its total length is largerthan the legal limit, causing buffer overruns in the machine's OS (becousethe buffer sizes are defined only to accomodate the maximum allowed size ofthe packet based on RFC 791)...IDS can generally recongize such attacks bylooking for packet fragments that have the IP header's protocol field set to1 (ICMP), the last bit set, and (IP offset *8) +(IP data length)>65535" CCIE Professional Development Network Security Principles and Practices by Saadat Malik pg 414 "Ping of Death" attacks cause systems to react in an unpredictable fashion when receiving oversized IP packets. TCP/IP allows for a maximum packet size of up to 65536 octets (1 octet = 8 bits of data), containing aminimum of 20 octets of IP header information and zero or more octets ofoptional information, with the rest of the packet being data. Ping of Deathattacks can cause crashing, freezing, and rebooting.
In the context of Windows Security, what is a 'null' user?
NULL sessions take advantage of “features” in the SMB (Server Message Block) protocol that exist primarily for trust relationships. You can establish a NULL session with a Windows host by logging on with a NULL user name and password. Using these NULL connections allows you to gather the following information from the host:
* List of users and groups
* List of machines
* List of shares
* Users and host SID' (Security Identifiers)
NULL sessions exist in windows networking to allow:
* Trusted domains to enumerate resources
* Computers outside the domain to authenticate and enumerate users
* The SYSTEM account to authenticate and enumerate resources
NetBIOS NULL sessions are enabled by default in Windows NT and 2000. Windows XP and 2003 will allow anonymous enumeration of shares, but not SAM accounts.
A remote user tries to login to a secure network using Telnet, but accidently types in an invalid user name or password. Which responses would NOT be preferred by an experienced Security Manager? (multiple answer)
As little information as possible should be given about a failed login attempt. Invalid username or password is not desirable.
Windows LAN Manager (LM) hashes are known to be weak. Which of the following are known weaknesses of LM? (Choose three)
The LM hash is computed as follows.
1. The user’s password as an OEM string is converted to uppercase.
2. This password is either null-padded or truncated to 14 bytes.
3. The “fixed-length” password is split into two 7-byte halves.
4. These values are used to create two DES keys, one from each 7-byte half.
5. Each of these keys is used to DES-encrypt the constant ASCII string “KGS!@#$%”, resulting in two 8-byte ciphertext values.
6. These two ciphertext values are concatenated to form a 16-byte value, which is the LM hash.
The hashes them self are sent in clear text over the network instead of sending the password in clear text.
What is a NULL scan?
A null scan has all flags turned off.
ARP poisoning is achieved in _____ steps
The hacker begins by sending a malicious ARP "reply" (for which there was no previous request) to your router, associating his computer's MAC address with your IP Address. Now your router thinks the hacker's computer is your computer. Next, the hacker sends a malicious ARP reply to your computer, associating his MAC Address with the routers IP Address. Now your machine thinks the hacker's computer is your router. The hacker has now used ARP poisoning to accomplish a MitM attack.
ettercap –NCLzs --quiet
What does the command in the exhibit do in “Ettercap”?
-N = NON interactive mode (without ncurses)
-C = collect all users and passwords
-L = if used with -C (collector) it creates a file with all the password sniffed in the session in the form "YYYYMMDD-collected-pass.log"
-z = start in silent mode (no arp storm on start up)
-s = IP BASED sniffing
--quiet = "demonize" ettercap. Useful if you want to log all data in background.
Which method can provide a better return on IT security investment and provide a thorough and comprehensive assessment of organizational security covering policy, procedure design, and implementation?
Which type of scan is used on the eye to measure the layer of blood vessels?
Which of the following is an advantage of utilizing security testing methodologies to conduct a security audit?
Which solution can be used to emulate computer services, such as mail and ftp, and to capture information related to logins or actions?
A security administrator notices that the log file of the company`s webserver contains suspicious entries:
Based on source code analysis, the analyst concludes that the login.php script is vulnerable to
Which of the following is a characteristic of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)?
A consultant has been hired by the V.P. of a large financial organization to assess the company's security posture. During the security testing, the consultant comes across child pornography on the V.P.'s computer. What is the consultant's obligation to the financial organization?
How can a rootkit bypass Windows 7 operating system’s kernel mode, code signing policy?
A corporation hired an ethical hacker to test if it is possible to obtain users' login credentials using methods other than social engineering. Access to offices and to a network node is granted. Results from server scanning indicate all are adequately patched and physical access is denied, thus, administrators have access only through Remote Desktop. Which technique could be used to obtain login credentials?
The intrusion detection system at a software development company suddenly generates multiple alerts regarding attacks against the company's external webserver, VPN concentrator, and DNS servers. What should the security team do to determine which alerts to check first?
Which of the following items is unique to the N-tier architecture method of designing software applications?
A network administrator received an administrative alert at 3:00 a.m. from the intrusion detection system. The alert was generated because a large number of packets were coming into the network over ports 20 and 21. During analysis, there were no signs of attack on the FTP servers. How should the administrator classify this situation?
How do employers protect assets with security policies pertaining to employee surveillance activities?
What statement is true regarding LM hashes?
Which NMAP command combination would let a tester scan every TCP port from a class C network that is blocking ICMP with fingerprinting and service detection?
Which of the following parameters enables NMAP's operating system detection feature?
Which of the following guidelines or standards is associated with the credit card industry?
This tool is widely used for ARP Poisoning attack. Name the tool.
Which of the following tool would be considered as Signature Integrity Verifier (SIV)?
If a competitor wants to cause damage to your organization, steal critical secrets, or put you out of business, they just have to find a job opening, prepare someone to pass the interview, have that person hired, and they will be in the organization.
How would you prevent such type of attacks?
What file system vulnerability does the following command take advantage of?
type c:\anyfile.exe > c:\winnt\system32\calc.exe:anyfile.exe
You want to hide a secret.txt document inside c:\windows\system32\tcpip.dll kernel library using ADS streams. How will you accomplish this?
The following script shows a simple SQL injection. The script builds an SQL query by concatenating hard-coded strings together with a string entered by the user:
The user is prompted to enter the name of a city on a Web form. If she enters Chicago, the query assembled by the script looks similar to the following:
SELECT * FROM OrdersTable WHERE ShipCity = 'Chicago'
How will you delete the OrdersTable from the database using SQL Injection?
What does ICMP (type 11, code 0) denote?
You are the Security Administrator of Xtrinity, Inc. You write security policies and conduct assessments to protect the company's network. During one of your periodic checks to see how well policy is being observed by the employees, you discover an employee has attached cell phone 3G modem to his telephone line and workstation. He has used this cell phone 3G modem to dial in to his workstation, thereby bypassing your firewall. A security breach has occurred as a direct result of this activity. The employee explains that he used the modem because he had to download software for a department project. How would you resolve this situation?
Jake works as a system administrator at Acme Corp. Jason, an accountant of the firm befriends him at the canteen and tags along with him on the pretext of appraising him about potential tax benefits. Jason waits for Jake to swipe his access card and follows him through the open door into the secure systems area. How would you describe Jason's behavior within a security context?
A common technique for luring e-mail users into opening virus-launching attachments is to send messages that would appear to be relevant or important to many of their potential recipients. One way of accomplishing this feat is to make the virus-carrying messages appear to come from some type of business entity retailing sites, UPS, FEDEX, CITIBANK or a major provider of a common service.
Here is a fraudulent e-mail claiming to be from FedEx regarding a package that could not be delivered. This mail asks the receiver to open an attachment in order to obtain the FEDEX tracking number for picking up the package. The attachment contained in this type of e-mail activates a virus.
Vendors send e-mails like this to their customers advising them not to open any files attached with the mail, as they do not include attachments.
Fraudulent e-mail and legit e-mail that arrives in your inbox contain the fedex.com as the sender of the mail.
How do you ensure if the e-mail is authentic and sent from fedex.com?
What is a sniffing performed on a switched network called?
Which type of hacker represents the highest risk to your network?
BankerFox is a Trojan that is designed to steal users' banking data related to certain banking entities.
When they access any website of the affected banks through the vulnerable Firefox 3.5 browser, the Trojan is activated and logs the information entered by the user. All the information entered in that website will be logged by the Trojan and transmitted to the attacker's machine using covert channel.
BankerFox does not spread automatically using its own means. It needs an attacking user's intervention in order to reach the affected computer.
What is the most efficient way an attacker located in remote location to infect this banking Trojan on a victim's machine?
Lori is a Certified Ethical Hacker as well as a Certified Hacking Forensics Investigator working as an IT security consultant. Lori has been hired on by Kiley Innovators, a large marketing firm that recently underwent a string of thefts and corporate espionage incidents. Lori is told that a rival marketing company came out with an exact duplicate product right before Kiley Innovators was about to release it. The executive team believes that an employee is leaking information to the rival company. Lori questions all employees, reviews server logs, and firewall logs; after which she finds nothing. Lori is then given permission to search through the corporate email system. She searches by email being sent to and sent from the rival marketing company.
She finds one employee that appears to be sending very large email to this other marketing company, even though they should have no reason to be communicating with them. Lori tracks down the actual emails sent and upon opening them, only finds picture files attached to them. These files seem perfectly harmless, usually containing some kind of joke. Lori decides to use some special software to further examine the pictures and finds that each one had hidden text that was stored in each picture.
What technique was used by the Kiley Innovators employee to send information to the rival marketing company?
In TCP communications there are 8 flags; FIN, SYN, RST, PSH, ACK, URG, ECE, CWR. These flags have decimal numbers assigned to them:
FIN = 1
SYN = 2
RST = 4
PSH = 8
ACK = 16
URG = 32
ECE = 64
CWR = 128
Jason is the security administrator of ASPEN Communications. He analyzes some traffic using Wireshark and has enabled the following filters.
What is Jason trying to accomplish here?
In Buffer Overflow exploit, which of the following registers gets overwritten with return address of the exploit code?
What is the correct command to run Netcat on a server using port 56 that spawns command shell when connected?
What is the name of the international standard that establishes a baseline level of confidence in the security functionality of IT products by providing a set of requirements for evaluation?
Which of the following open source tools would be the best choice to scan a network for potential targets?
Information gathered from social networking websites such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn can be used to launch which of the following types of attacks? (Choose two.)
An organization hires a tester to do a wireless penetration test. Previous reports indicate that the last test did not contain management or control packets in the submitted traces. Which of the following is the most likely reason for lack of management or control packets?
The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) testing methodology addresses the need to secure web applications by providing which one of the following services?
Which of the following is a component of a risk assessment?
Which statement best describes a server type under an N-tier architecture?
A hacker is attempting to see which ports have been left open on a network. Which NMAP switch would the hacker use?
What is the primary drawback to using advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm with a 256 bit key to share sensitive data?
Which of the following cryptography attack methods is usually performed without the use of a computer?
When analyzing the IDS logs, the system administrator notices connections from outside of the LAN have been sending packets where the Source IP address and Destination IP address are the same. There have been no alerts sent via email or logged in the IDS. Which type of an alert is this?
During a penetration test, a tester finds that the web application being analyzed is vulnerable to Cross Site Scripting (XSS). Which of the following conditions must be met to exploit this vulnerability?
Which of the following is a primary service of the U.S. Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT)?
Which of the following is a hardware requirement that either an IDS/IPS system or a proxy server must have in order to properly function?
An ethical hacker for a large security research firm performs penetration tests, vulnerability tests, and risk assessments. A friend recently started a company and asks the hacker to perform a penetration test and vulnerability assessment of the new company as a favor. What should the hacker's next step be before starting work on this job?
Which of the following resources does NMAP need to be used as a basic vulnerability scanner covering several vectors like SMB, HTTP and FTP?
A botnet can be managed through which of the following?
You are footprinting an organization and gathering competitive intelligence. You visit the company's website for contact information and telephone numbers but do not find them listed there. You know they had the entire staff directory listed on their website 12 months ago but now it is not there. Is there any way you can retrieve information from a website that is outdated?
The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an archive of Web and multimedia resources. Located at the Presidio in San Francisco, California, this archive includes "snapshots of the World Wide Web" (archived copies of pages, taken at various points in time), software, movies, books, and audio recordings (including recordings of live concerts from bands that allow it). This site is found at www.archive.org.
You establish a new Web browser connection to Google. Since a 3-way handshake is required for any TCP connection, the following actions will take place.
Which of the following packets represent completion of the 3-way handshake?
Neil is closely monitoring his firewall rules and logs on a regular basis. Some of the users have complained to Neil that there are a few employees who are visiting offensive web site during work hours, without any consideration for others. Neil knows that he has an up-to-date content filtering system and such access should not be authorized. What type of technique might be used by these offenders to access the Internet without restriction?
Buffer X in an Accounting application module for Brownies Inc. can contain 200 characters. The programmer makes an assumption that 200 characters are more than enough. Because there were no proper boundary checks being conducted, Bob decided to insert 400 characters into the 200-character buffer. (Overflows the buffer). Below is the code snippet:
How can you protect/fix the problem of your application as shown above?
Jason is the network administrator of Spears Technology. He has enabled SNORT IDS to detect attacks going through his network. He receives Snort SMS alerts on his iPhone whenever there is an attempted intrusion to his network.
He receives the following SMS message during the weekend.
An attacker Chew Siew sitting in Beijing, China had just launched a remote scan on Jason's network with the hping command.
Which of the following hping2 command is responsible for the above snort alert?
ViruXine.W32 virus hides their presence by changing the underlying executable code. This Virus code mutates while keeping the original algorithm intact, the code changes itself each time it runs, but the function of the code (its semantics) will not change at all.
Here is a section of the Virus code:
What is this technique called?
You are programming a buffer overflow exploit and you want to create a NOP sled of 200 bytes in the program exploit.c
What is the hexadecimal value of NOP instruction?
Hampton is the senior security analyst for the city of Columbus in Ohio. His primary responsibility is to ensure that all physical and logical aspects of the city's computer network are secure from all angles. Bill is an IT technician that works with Hampton in the same IT department. Bill's primary responsibility is to keep PC's and servers up to date and to keep track of all the agency laptops that the company owns and lends out to its employees. After Bill setup a wireless network for the agency, Hampton made sure that everything was secure. He instituted encryption, rotating keys, turned off SSID broadcasting, and enabled MAC filtering. According to agency policy, only company laptops are allowed to use the wireless network, so Hampton entered all the MAC addresses for those laptops into the wireless security utility so that only those laptops should be able to access the wireless network.
Hampton does not keep track of all the laptops, but he is pretty certain that the agency only purchases Dell laptops. Hampton is curious about this because he notices Bill working on a Toshiba laptop one day and saw that he was on the Internet. Instead of jumping to conclusions, Hampton decides to talk to Bill's boss and see if they had purchased a Toshiba laptop instead of the usual Dell. Bill's boss said no, so now Hampton is very curious to see how Bill is accessing the Internet. Hampton does site surveys every couple of days, and has yet to see any outside wireless network signals inside the company's building.
How was Bill able to get Internet access without using an agency laptop?
Fred is scanning his network to ensure it is as secure as possible. Fred sends a TCP probe packet to a host with a FIN flag and he receives a RST/ACK response. What does this mean?
E-mail tracking is a method to monitor and spy the delivered e-mails to the intended recipient.
Select a feature, which you will NOT be able to accomplish with this probe?
The programmers on your team are analyzing the free, open source software being used to run FTP services on a server in your organization. They notice that there is excessive number of functions in the source code that might lead to buffer overflow. These C++ functions do not check bounds. Identify the line in the source code that might lead to buffer overflow?
You went to great lengths to install all the necessary technologies to prevent hacking attacks, such as expensive firewalls, antivirus software, anti-spam systems and intrusion detection/prevention tools in your company's network. You have configured the most secure policies and tightened every device on your network. You are confident that hackers will never be able to gain access to your network with complex security system in place. Your peer, Peter Smith who works at the same department disagrees with you. He says even the best network security technologies cannot prevent hackers gaining access to the network because of presence of "weakest link" in the security chain. What is Peter Smith talking about?