The network users are complaining because their system are slowing down. Further, every time they attempt to go a website, they receive a series of pop-ups with advertisements. What types of malware have the system been infected with?
Adware, or advertising supported computer code, is computer code that displays unwanted advertisements on your pc. Adware programs can tend to serve you pop-up ads, will modification your browser’s homepage, add spyware and simply bombard your device with advertisements. Adware may be a additional summary name for doubtless unwanted programs. It’s roughly a virulent disease and it’s going to not be as clearly malicious as a great deal of different problematic code floating around on the net. create no mistake concerning it, though, that adware has to return off of no matter machine it’s on. Not solely will adware be extremely annoying whenever you utilize your machine, it might additionally cause semipermanent problems for your device.
Adware a network users the browser to gather your internet browsing history so as to ’target’ advertisements that appear tailored to your interests. At their most innocuous, adware infections square measure simply annoying. as an example, adware barrages you with pop-up ads that may create your net expertise markedly slower and additional labor intensive.
What type of virus is most likely to remain undetected by antivirus software?
John, a professional hacker, decided to use DNS to perform data exfiltration on a target network, in this process, he embedded malicious data into the DNS protocol packets that even DNSSEC cannot detect. Using this technique. John successfully injected malware to bypass a firewall and maintained communication with the victim machine and C&C server. What is the technique employed by John to bypass the firewall?
DNS tunneling may be a method wont to send data over the DNS protocol, a protocol which has never been intended for data transfer. due to that, people tend to overlook it and it’s become a well-liked but effective tool in many attacks.Most popular use case for DNS tunneling is obtaining free internet through bypassing captive portals at airports, hotels, or if you are feeling patient the not-so-cheap on the wing Wi-Fi.On those shared internet hotspots HTTP traffic is blocked until a username/password is provided, however DNS traffic is usually still allowed within the background: we will encode our HTTP traffic over DNS and voilà, we’ve internet access.This sounds fun but reality is, browsing anything on DNS tunneling is slow. Like, back to 1998 slow.Another more dangerous use of DNS tunneling would be bypassing network security devices (Firewalls, DLP appliances…) to line up an immediate and unmonitored communications channel on an organisation’s network. Possibilities here are endless: Data exfiltration, fixing another penetration testing tool… you name it.To make it even more worrying, there’s an outsized amount of easy to use DNS tunneling tools out there.There’s even a minimum of one VPN over DNS protocol provider (warning: the planning of the web site is hideous, making me doubt on the legitimacy of it).As a pentester all this is often great, as a network admin not such a lot .
How does it work:For those that ignoramus about DNS protocol but still made it here, i feel you deserve a really brief explanation on what DNS does: DNS is sort of a phonebook for the web , it translates URLs (human-friendly language, the person’s name), into an IP address (machine-friendly language, the phone number). That helps us remember many websites, same as we will remember many people’s names.For those that know what DNS is i might suggest looking here for a fast refresh on DNS protocol, but briefly what you would like to understand is:• A Record: Maps a website name to an IP address.example.com ? 18.104.22.168• NS Record (a.k.a. Nameserver record): Maps a website name to an inventory of DNS servers, just in case our website is hosted in multiple servers.example.com ? server1.example.com, server2.example.comWho is involved in DNS tunneling?• Client. Will launch DNS requests with data in them to a website .• One Domain that we will configure. So DNS servers will redirect its requests to an outlined server of our own.• Server. this is often the defined nameserver which can ultimately receive the DNS requests.The 6 Steps in DNS tunneling (simplified):1. The client encodes data during a DNS request. The way it does this is often by prepending a bit of knowledge within the domain of the request. for instance : mypieceofdata.server1.example.com2. The DNS request goes bent a DNS server.3. The DNS server finds out the A register of your domain with the IP address of your server.4. The request for mypieceofdata.server1.example.com is forwarded to the server.5. The server processes regardless of the mypieceofdata was alleged to do. Let’s assume it had been an HTTP request.6. The server replies back over DNS and woop woop, we’ve got signal.
Bypassing Firewalls through the DNS Tunneling Method DNS operates using UDP, and it has a 255-byte limit on outbound queries. Moreover, it allows only alphanumeric characters and hyphens. Such small size constraints on external queries allow DNS to be used as an ideal choice to perform data exfiltration by various malicious entities. Since corrupt or malicious data can be secretly embedded into the DNS protocol packets, even DNSSEC cannot detect the abnormality in DNS tunneling. It is effectively used by malware to bypass the firewall to maintain communication between the victim machine and the C&C server. Tools such as NSTX (https://sourceforge.net), Heyoka (http://heyoka.sourceforge.netuse), and Iodine (https://code.kryo.se) use this technique of tunneling traffic across DNS port 53. CEH v11 Module 12 Page 994
Stephen, an attacker, targeted the industrial control systems of an organization. He generated a fraudulent email with a malicious attachment and sent it to employees of the target organization. An employee who manages the sales software of the operational plant opened the fraudulent email and clicked on the malicious attachment. This resulted in the malicious attachment being downloaded and malware being injected into the sales software maintained in the victim's system. Further, the malware propagated itself to other networked systems, finally damaging the industrial automation components. What is the attack technique used by Stephen to damage the industrial systems?
You have gained physical access to a Windows 2008 R2 server which has an accessible disc drive. When you attempt to boot the server and log in, you are unable to guess the password. In your toolkit, you have an Ubuntu 9.10 Linux LiveCD. Which Linux-based tool can change any user’s password or activate disabled Windows accounts?
What is the file that determines the basic configuration (specifically activities, services, broadcast receivers, etc.) in an Android application?
The AndroidManifest.xml file contains information of your package, including components of the appliance like activities, services, broadcast receivers, content providers etc.It performs another tasks also:• it’s responsible to guard the appliance to access any protected parts by providing the permissions.• It also declares the android api that the appliance goes to use.• It lists the instrumentation classes. The instrumentation classes provides profiling and other informations. These informations are removed just before the appliance is published etc.This is the specified xml file for all the android application and located inside the basis directory.
Morris, a professional hacker, performed a vulnerability scan on a target organization by sniffing the traffic on the network lo identify the active systems, network services, applications, and vulnerabilities. He also obtained the list of the users who are currently accessing the network. What is the type of vulnerability assessment that Morris performed on the target organization?
Passive Assessment Passive assessments sniff the traffic present on the network to identify the active systems, network services, applications, and vulnerabilities. Passive assessments also provide a list of the users who are currently accessing the network.
Which tier in the N-tier application architecture is responsible for moving and processing data between the tiers?
Attempting an injection attack on a web server based on responses to True/False QUESTION NO:s is called which of the following?
While testing a web application in development, you notice that the web server does not properly ignore the “dot dot slash” (../) character string and instead returns the file listing of a folder structure of the server.
What kind of attack is possible in this scenario?
Appropriately controlling admittance to web content is significant for running a safe web worker. Index crossing or Path Traversal is a HTTP assault which permits aggressors to get to limited catalogs and execute orders outside of the web worker’s root registry.
Web workers give two primary degrees of security instruments
An Access Control List is utilized in the approval cycle. It is a rundown which the web worker’s manager uses to show which clients or gatherings can get to, change or execute specific records on the worker, just as other access rights.
The root registry is a particular index on the worker record framework in which the clients are kept. Clients can’t get to anything over this root.
For instance: the default root registry of IIS on Windows is C:\Inetpub\wwwroot and with this arrangement, a client doesn’t approach C:\Windows yet approaches C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\news and some other indexes and documents under the root catalog (given that the client is confirmed by means of the ACLs).
The root index keeps clients from getting to any documents on the worker, for example, C:\WINDOWS/system32/win.ini on Windows stages and the/and so on/passwd record on Linux/UNIX stages.
This weakness can exist either in the web worker programming itself or in the web application code.
To play out a registry crossing assault, all an assailant requires is an internet browser and some information on where to aimlessly discover any default documents and registries on the framework.
What an assailant can do if your site is defenselessWith a framework defenseless against index crossing, an aggressor can utilize this weakness to venture out of the root catalog and access different pieces of the record framework. This may enable the assailant to see confined documents, which could give the aggressor more data needed to additional trade off the framework.
Contingent upon how the site access is set up, the aggressor will execute orders by mimicking himself as the client which is related with “the site”. Along these lines everything relies upon what the site client has been offered admittance to in the framework.
Illustration of a Directory Traversal assault by means of web application codeIn web applications with dynamic pages, input is generally gotten from programs through GET or POST solicitation techniques. Here is an illustration of a HTTP GET demand URL
GET http://test.webarticles. com/show.asp?view=oldarchive.html HTTP/1.1
With this URL, the browser requests the dynamic page show.asp from the server and with it also sends the parameter view with the value of oldarchive.html. When this request is executed on the web server, show.asp retrieves the file oldarchive.html from the server’s file system, renders it and then sends it back to the browser which displays it to the user. The attacker would assume that show.asp can retrieve files from the file system and sends the following custom URL.
GET http://test.webarticles.com/show.asp?view=../../../../../Windows/system.ini HTTP/1.1
This will cause the dynamic page to retrieve the file system.ini from the file system and display it to the user. The expression ../ instructs the system to go one directory up which is commonly used as an operating system directive. The attacker has to guess how many directories he has to go up to find the Windows folder on the system, but this is easily done by trial and error.
Example of a Directory Traversal attack via web serverApart from vulnerabilities in the code, even the web server itself can be open to directory traversal attacks. The problem can either be incorporated into the web server software or inside some sample script files left available on the server.
The vulnerability has been fixed in the latest versions of web server software, but there are web servers online which are still using older versions of IIS and Apache which might be open to directory traversal attacks. Even though you might be using a web server software version that has fixed this vulnerability, you might still have some sensitive default script directories exposed which are well known to hackers.
For example, a URL request which makes use of the scripts directory of IIS to traverse directories and execute a command can be
GET http://server.com/scripts/..%5c../Windows/System32/cmd.exe?/c+dir+c:\ HTTP/1.1
The request would return to the user a list of all files in the C:\ directory by executing the cmd.exe command shell file and run the command dir c:\ in the shell. The %5c expression that is in the URL request is a web server escape code which is used to represent normal characters. In this case %5c represents the character \.
Newer versions of modern web server software check for these escape codes and do not let them through. Some older versions however, do not filter out these codes in the root directory enforcer and will let the attackers execute such commands.
Jude, a pen tester, examined a network from a hacker's perspective to identify exploits and vulnerabilities accessible to the outside world by using devices such as firewalls, routers, and servers. In this process, he also estimated the threat of network security attacks and determined the level of security of the corporate network.
What is the type of vulnerability assessment that Jude performed on the organization?
Bobby, an attacker, targeted a user and decided to hijack and intercept all their wireless communications. He installed a fake communication tower between two authentic endpoints to mislead the victim. Bobby used this virtual tower to interrupt the data transmission between the user and real tower, attempting to hijack an active session, upon receiving the users request. Bobby manipulated the traffic with the virtual tower and redirected the victim to a malicious website. What is the attack performed by Bobby in the above scenario?
aLTEr attacks are usually performed on LTE devices Attacker installs a virtual (fake) communication tower between two authentic endpoints intending to mislead the victim This virtual tower is used to interrupt the data transmission between the user and real tower attempting to hijack the active session.
Peter is surfing the internet looking for information about DX Company. Which hacking process is Peter doing?
Henry Is a cyber security specialist hired by BlackEye - Cyber security solutions. He was tasked with discovering the operating system (OS) of a host. He used the Unkornscan tool to discover the OS of the target system. As a result, he obtained a TTL value, which Indicates that the target system is running a Windows OS. Identify the TTL value Henry obtained, which indicates that the target OS is Windows.
Windows TTL 128, Linux TTL 64, OpenBSD 255 ... https://subinsb.com/default-device-ttl-values/
Time to Live (TTL) represents to number of 'hops' a packet can take before it is considered invalid. For Windows/Windows Phone, this value is 128. This value is 64 for Linux/Android.
Samuel a security administrator, is assessing the configuration of a web server. He noticed that the server permits SSlv2 connections, and the same private key certificate is used on a different server that allows SSLv2 connections. This vulnerability makes the web server vulnerable to attacks as the SSLv2 server can leak key information.
Which of the following attacks can be performed by exploiting the above vulnerability?
DROWN is a serious vulnerability that affects HTTPS and other services that deem SSL and TLS, some of the essential cryptographic protocols for net security. These protocols allow everyone on the net to browse the net, use email, look on-line, and send instant messages while not third-parties being able to browse the communication.
DROWN allows attackers to break the encryption and read or steal sensitive communications, as well as passwords, credit card numbers, trade secrets, or financial data. At the time of public disclosure on March 2016, our measurements indicated thirty third of all HTTPS servers were vulnerable to the attack. fortuitously, the vulnerability is much less prevalent currently. As of 2019, SSL Labs estimates that one.2% of HTTPS servers are vulnerable.
What will the attackers gain?Any communication between users and the server. This typically includes, however isn’t limited to, usernames and passwords, credit card numbers, emails, instant messages, and sensitive documents. under some common scenarios, an attacker can also impersonate a secure web site and intercept or change the content the user sees.
Who is vulnerable?Websites, mail servers, and other TLS-dependent services are in danger for the DROWN attack. At the time of public disclosure, many popular sites were affected. we used Internet-wide scanning to live how many sites are vulnerable:
Operators of vulnerable servers got to take action. there’s nothing practical that browsers or end-users will do on their own to protect against this attack.
Is my site vulnerable?Modern servers and shoppers use the TLS encryption protocol. However, because of misconfigurations, several servers also still support SSLv2, a 1990s-era precursor to TLS. This support did not matter in practice, since no up-to-date clients really use SSLv2. Therefore, despite the fact that SSLv2 is thought to be badly insecure, until now, simply supporting SSLv2 wasn’t thought of a security problem, is a clients never used it.
DROWN shows that merely supporting SSLv2 may be a threat to fashionable servers and clients. It modern associate degree attacker to modern fashionable TLS connections between up-to-date clients and servers by sending probes to a server that supports SSLv2 and uses the same private key.
A server is vulnerable to DROWN if:SSLv2
How do I protect my server?To protect against DROWN, server operators need to ensure that their private keys software used anyplace with server computer code that enables SSLv2 connections. This includes net servers, SMTP servers, IMAP and POP servers, and the other software that supports SSL/TLS.
Disabling SSLv2 is difficult and depends on the particular server software. we offer instructions here for many common products:
OpenSSL: OpenSSL may be a science library employed in several server merchandise. For users of OpenSSL, the simplest and recommended solution is to upgrade to a recent OpenSSL version. OpenSSL 1.0.2 users ought to upgrade to 1.0.2g. OpenSSL 1.0.1 users ought to upgrade to one.0.1s. Users of older OpenSSL versions ought to upgrade to either one in every of these versions. (Updated March thirteenth, 16:00 UTC) Microsoft IIS (Windows Server): Support for SSLv2 on the server aspect is enabled by default only on the OS versions that correspond to IIS 7.0 and IIS seven.5, particularly Windows scene, Windows Server 2008, Windows seven and Windows Server 2008R2. This support is disabled within the appropriate SSLv2 subkey for ‘Server’, as outlined in KB245030. albeit users haven’t taken the steps to disable SSLv2, the export-grade and 56-bit ciphers that build DROWN possible don’t seem to be supported by default.
Network Security Services (NSS): NSS may be a common science library designed into several server merchandise. NSS versions three.13 (released back in 2012) and higher than ought to have SSLv2 disabled by default. (A little variety of users might have enabled SSLv2 manually and can got to take steps to disable it.) Users of older versions ought to upgrade to a more moderen version. we tend to still advocate checking whether or not your non-public secret is exposed elsewhere
Other affected software and in operation systems:
Instructions and data for: Apache, Postfix, Nginx, Debian, Red Hat
Browsers and other consumers: practical nothing practical that net browsers or different client computer code will do to stop DROWN. only server operators ar ready to take action to guard against the attack.
An LDAP directory can be used to store information similar to a SQL database. LDAP uses a _____ database structure instead of SQL’s _____ structure. Because of this, LDAP has difficulty representing many-to-one relationships.
Which of the following provides a security professional with most information about the system’s security posture?
An incident investigator asks to receive a copy of the event logs from all firewalls, proxy servers, and Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) on the network of an organization that has experienced a possible breach of security. When the investigator attempts to correlate the information in all of the logs, the sequence of many of the logged events do not match up.
What is the most likely cause?
jane invites her friends Alice and John over for a LAN party. Alice and John access Jane's wireless network without a password. However. Jane has a long, complex password on her router. What attack has likely occurred?
An evil twin may be a fraudulent Wi-Fi access point that appears to be legitimate but is about up to pay attention to wireless communications. The evil twin is that the wireless LAN equivalent of the phishing scam.This type of attack could also be wont to steal the passwords of unsuspecting users, either by monitoring their connections or by phishing, which involves fixing a fraudulent internet site and luring people there.The attacker snoops on Internet traffic employing a bogus wireless access point. Unwitting web users could also be invited to log into the attacker’s server, prompting them to enter sensitive information like usernames and passwords. Often, users are unaware they need been duped until well after the incident has occurred.When users log into unsecured (non-HTTPS) bank or e-mail accounts, the attacker intercepts the transaction, since it’s sent through their equipment. The attacker is additionally ready to hook up with other networks related to the users’ credentials.Fake access points are found out by configuring a wireless card to act as an access point (known as HostAP). they’re hard to trace since they will be shut off instantly. The counterfeit access point could also be given an equivalent SSID and BSSID as a close-by Wi-Fi network. The evil twin are often configured to pass Internet traffic through to the legitimate access point while monitoring the victim’s connection, or it can simply say the system is temporarily unavailable after obtaining a username and password.
Tess King is using the nslookup command to craft queries to list all DNS information (such as Name Servers, host names, MX records, CNAME records, glue records (delegation for child Domains), zone serial number, TimeToLive (TTL) records, etc) for a Domain.
What do you think Tess King is trying to accomplish? Select the best answer.
What does the following command in netcat do?
nc -l -u -p55555 < /etc/passwd
When purchasing a biometric system, one of the considerations that should be reviewed is the processing speed. Which of the following best describes what it is meant by processing?
Which file is a rich target to discover the structure of a website during web-server footprinting?
Your organization has signed an agreement with a web hosting provider that requires you to take full responsibility of the maintenance of the cloud-based resources. Which of the following models covers this?
Which rootkit is characterized by its function of adding code and/or replacing some of the operating-system kernel code to obscure a backdoor on a system?
What kind of detection techniques is being used in antivirus software that identifies malware by collecting data from multiple protected systems and instead of analyzing files locally it’s made on the provider’s environment?
How can rainbow tables be defeated?
CompanyXYZ has asked you to assess the security of their perimeter email gateway. From your office in New York, you craft a specially formatted email message and send it across the Internet to an employee of CompanyXYZ. The employee of CompanyXYZ is aware of your test. Your email message looks like this:
To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Test message
Date: 4/3/2017 14:37
The employee of CompanyXYZ receives your email message.
This proves that CompanyXYZ’s email gateway doesn’t prevent what?
Take a look at the following attack on a Web Server using obstructed URL:
How would you protect from these attacks?
By using a smart card and pin, you are using a two-factor authentication that satisfies
Daniel Is a professional hacker who Is attempting to perform an SQL injection attack on a target website. www.movlescope.com. During this process, he encountered an IDS that detects SQL Injection attempts based on predefined signatures. To evade any comparison statement, he attempted placing characters such as ‘ 'or '1'='1" In any bask injection statement such as "or 1=1." Identify the evasion technique used by Daniel in the above scenario.
One may append the comment “–” operator along with the String for the username and whole avoid executing the password segment of the SQL query. Everything when the — operator would be considered as comment and not dead.
To launch such an attack, the value passed for name could be ’OR ‘1’=‘1’ ; —Statement = “SELECT * FROM ‘CustomerDB’ WHERE ‘name’ = ‘ ”+ userName + “ ‘ AND ‘password’ = ‘ ” + passwd + “ ‘ ; ”
Statement = “SELECT * FROM ‘CustomerDB’ WHERE ‘name’ = ‘ ’ OR ‘1’=‘1‘;– + “ ‘ AND ‘password’ = ‘ ” + passwd + “ ‘ ; ”
All the records from the customer database would be listed.
Yet, another variation of the SQL Injection Attack can be conducted in dbms systems that allow multiple SQL injection statements. Here, we will also create use of the vulnerability in sure dbms whereby a user provided field isn’t strongly used in or isn’t checked for sort constraints.
This could take place once a numeric field is to be employed in a SQL statement; but, the programmer makes no checks to validate that the user supplied input is numeric.
Variation is an evasion technique whereby the attacker can easily evade any comparison statement. The attacker does this by placing characters such as “' or '1'='1'” in any basic injection statement such as “or 1=1” or with other accepted SQL comments.
Evasion Technique: Variation Variation is an evasion technique whereby the attacker can easily evade any comparison statement. The attacker does this by placing characters such as “' or '1'='1'” in any basic injection statement such as “or 1=1” or with other accepted SQL comments. The SQL interprets this as a comparison between two strings or characters instead of two numeric values. As the evaluation of two strings yields a true statement, similarly, the evaluation of two numeric values yields a true statement, thus rendering the evaluation of the complete query unaffected. It is also possible to write many other signatures; thus, there are infinite possibilities of variation as well. The main aim of the attacker is to have a WHERE statement that is always evaluated as “true” so that any mathematical or string comparison can be used, where the SQL can perform the same.
Which of the following tools performs comprehensive tests against web servers, including dangerous files and CGIs?
When discussing passwords, what is considered a brute force attack?
what is the port to block first in case you are suspicious that an loT device has been compromised?
TCP port 48101 uses the Transmission management Protocol. transmission control protocol is one in all the most protocols in TCP/IP networks. transmission control protocol could be a connection-oriented protocol, it needs acknowledgement to line up end-to-end communications. only a association is about up user’s knowledge may be sent bi-directionally over the association.
Attention! transmission control protocol guarantees delivery of knowledge packets on port 48101 within the same order during which they were sent. bonded communication over transmission control protocol port 48101 is that the main distinction between transmission control protocol and UDP. UDP port 48101 wouldn’t have bonded communication as transmission control protocol.
UDP on port 48101 provides Associate in Nursing unreliable service and datagrams might arrive duplicated, out of order, or missing unexpectedly. UDP on port 48101 thinks that error checking and correction isn’t necessary or performed within the application, avoiding the overhead of such process at the network interface level.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) could be a borderline message-oriented Transport Layer protocol (protocol is documented in IETF RFC 768).
Application examples that always use UDP: vocalisation IP (VoIP), streaming media and period multiplayer games. several internet applications use UDP, e.g. the name System (DNS), the Routing info Protocol (RIP), the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), the straightforward Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
_________ is a type of phishing that targets high-profile executives such as CEOs, CFOs, politicians, and celebrities who have access to confidential and highly valuable information.
User A is writing a sensitive email message to user B outside the local network. User A has chosen to use PKI to secure his message and ensure only user B can read the sensitive email. At what layer of the OSI layer does the encryption and decryption of the message take place?
Lewis, a professional hacker, targeted the loT cameras and devices used by a target venture-capital firm. He used an information-gathering tool to collect information about the loT devices connected to a network, open ports and services, and the attack surface area. Using this tool, he also generated statistical reports on broad usage patterns and trends. This tool helped Lewis continually monitor every reachable server and device on the Internet, further allowing him to exploit these devices in the network. Which of the following tools was employed by Lewis in the above scenario?
Censys scans help the scientific community accurately study the Internet. The data is sometimes used to detect security problems and to inform operators of vulnerable systems so that they can fixed
From the following table, identify the wrong answer in terms of Range (ft).
Standard Range (ft)
802.16 (WiMax) 30 miles
An attacker changes the profile information of a particular user (victim) on the target website. The attacker uses this string to update the victim’s profile to a text file and then submit the data to the attacker’s database.
< iframe src=““http://www.vulnweb.com/updateif.php”” style=““display:none”” > < /iframe >
What is this type of attack (that can use either HTTP GET or HTTP POST) called?
John, a disgruntled ex-employee of an organization, contacted a professional hacker to exploit the organization. In the attack process, the professional hacker Installed a scanner on a machine belonging to one of the vktims and scanned several machines on the same network to Identify vulnerabilities to perform further exploitation. What is the type of vulnerability assessment tool employed by John in the above scenario?
Knowing when to include agents into your vulnerability management processes isn’t an easy decision. Below are common use cases for agent-based vulnerability scanning to assist you build out your combined scanning strategy.
Agent-Based Scanner: Agent-based scanners reside on a single machine but can scan several machines on the same network.
if you send a TCP ACK segment to a known closed port on a firewall but it does not respond with an RST. what do you know about the firewall you are scanning?
Suppose your company has just passed a security risk assessment exercise. The results display that the risk of the breach in the main company application is 50%. Security staff has taken some measures and
implemented the necessary controls. After that, another security risk assessment was performed showing that risk has decreased to 10%. The risk threshold for the application is 20%. Which of the following risk decisions will be the best for the project in terms of its successful continuation with the most business profit?
To invisibly maintain access to a machine, an attacker utilizes a toolkit that sits undetected In the core components of the operating system. What is this type of rootkit an example of?
Kernel-mode rootkits run with the best operating system privileges (Ring 0) by adding code or replacement parts of the core operating system, as well as each the kernel and associated device drivers. Most operative systems support kernel-mode device drivers, that execute with a similar privileges because the software itself. As such, several kernel-mode rootkits square measure developed as device drivers or loadable modules, like loadable kernel modules in Linux or device drivers in Microsoft Windows. This category of rootkit has unrestricted security access, however is tougher to jot down. The quality makes bugs common, and any bugs in code operative at the kernel level could seriously impact system stability, resulting in discovery of the rootkit. one amongst the primary wide familiar kernel rootkits was developed for Windows NT four.0 and discharged in Phrack magazine in 1999 by Greg Hoglund. Kernel rootkits is particularly tough to observe and take away as a result of they operate at a similar security level because the software itself, and square measure therefore able to intercept or subvert the foremost sure software operations. Any package, like antivirus package, running on the compromised system is equally vulnerable. during this scenario, no a part of the system is sure.
Which of the following is the primary objective of a rootkit?
Fred is the network administrator for his company. Fred is testing an internal switch.
From an external IP address, Fred wants to try and trick this switch into thinking it already has established a session with his computer. How can Fred accomplish this?
Which of the following is the least-likely physical characteristic to be used in biometric control that supports a large company?
You need a tool that can do network intrusion prevention and intrusion detection, function as a network sniffer, and record network activity, what tool would you most likely select?
Suppose that you test an application for the SQL injection vulnerability. You know that the backend database
is based on Microsoft SQL Server. In the login/password form, you enter the following credentials:
Username: attack' or 1=1 -
Based on the above credentials, which of the following SQL commands are you expecting to be executed by the server, if there is indeed an SQL injection vulnerability?
Mary found a high vulnerability during a vulnerability scan and notified her server team. After analysis, they sent her proof that a fix to that issue had already been applied. The vulnerability that Marry found is called what?
When a security analyst prepares for the formal security assessment - what of the following should be done in order to determine inconsistencies in the secure assets database and verify that system is compliant to the minimum security baseline?
Bella, a security professional working at an it firm, finds that a security breach has occurred while transferring important files. Sensitive data, employee usernames. and passwords are shared In plaintext, paving the way for hackers 10 perform successful session hijacking. To address this situation. Bella Implemented a protocol that sends data using encryption and digital certificates. Which of the following protocols Is used by Bella?
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard organization convention utilized for the exchange of PC records from a worker to a customer on a PC organization. FTP is based on a customer worker model engineering utilizing separate control and information associations between the customer and the server. FTP clients may validate themselves with an unmistakable book sign-in convention, ordinarily as a username and secret key, however can interface namelessly if the worker is designed to permit it. For secure transmission that ensures the username and secret phrase, and scrambles the substance, FTP is frequently made sure about with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or supplanted with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).
The primary FTP customer applications were order line programs created prior to working frameworks had graphical UIs, are as yet dispatched with most Windows, Unix, and Linux working systems. Many FTP customers and mechanization utilities have since been created for working areas, workers, cell phones, and equipment, and FTP has been fused into profitability applications, for example, HTML editors.
The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) contains six different categories of control objectives. Each objective contains one or more requirements, which must be followed in order to achieve compliance. Which of the following requirements would best fit under the objective, "Implement strong access control measures"?
Attacker Simon targeted the communication network of an organization and disabled the security controls of NetNTLMvl by modifying the values of LMCompatibilityLevel, NTLMMinClientSec, and RestrictSendingNTLMTraffic. He then extracted all the non-network logon tokens from all the active processes to masquerade as a legitimate user to launch further attacks. What is the type of attack performed by Simon?
Based on the below log, which of the following sentences are true?
Mar 1, 2016, 7:33:28 AM 10.240.250.23 - 54373 10.249.253.15 - 22 tcp_ip
CyberTech Inc. recently experienced SQL injection attacks on its official website. The company appointed Bob, a security professional, to build and incorporate defensive strategies against such attacks. Bob adopted a practice whereby only a list of entities such as the data type, range, size, and value, which have been approved for secured access, is accepted. What is the defensive technique employed by Bob in the above scenario?
What port number is used by LDAP protocol?
What term describes the amount of risk that remains after the vulnerabilities are classified and the countermeasures have been deployed?
An attacker identified that a user and an access point are both compatible with WPA2 and WPA3 encryption. The attacker installed a rogue access point with only WPA2 compatibility in the vicinity and forced the victim to go through the WPA2 four-way handshake to get connected. After the connection was established, the attacker used automated tools to crack WPA2-encrypted messages. What is the attack performed in the above scenario?
In this attack, a victim receives an e-mail claiming from PayPal stating that their account has been disabled and confirmation is required before activation. The attackers then scam to collect not one but two credit card numbers, ATM PIN number and other personal details. Ignorant users usually fall prey to this scam.
Which of the following statement is incorrect related to this attack?
Which of the following programs is usually targeted at Microsoft Office products?
Johnson, an attacker, performed online research for the contact details of reputed cybersecurity firms. He found the contact number of sibertech.org and dialed the number, claiming himself to represent a technical support team from a vendor. He warned that a specific server is about to be compromised and requested sibertech.org to follow the provided instructions. Consequently, he prompted the victim to execute unusual commands and install malicious files, which were then used to collect and pass critical Information to Johnson's machine. What is the social engineering technique Steve employed in the above scenario?
This Social Engineering scam involves an exchange of information that can benefit both the victim and the trickster. Scammers would make the prey believe that a fair exchange will be present between both sides, but in reality, only the fraudster stands to benefit, leaving the victim hanging on to nothing. An example of a Quid Pro Quo is a scammer pretending to be an IT support technician. The con artist asks for the login credentials of the company’s computer saying that the company is going to receive technical support in return. Once the victim has provided the credentials, the scammer now has control over the company’s computer and may possibly load malware or steal personal information that can be a motive to commit identity theft.
"A quid pro quo attack (aka something for something” attack) is a variant of baiting. Instead of baiting a target with the promise of a good, a quid pro quo attack promises a service or a benefit based on the execution of a specific action." https://resources.infosecinstitute.com/topic/common-social-engineering-attacks/#:~:text=A%20quid%20pro%20quo%20attack,execution%20of%20a%20specific%20action .
John is investigating web-application firewall logs and observers that someone is attempting to inject the following:
buff[>o] - 'a':
What type of attack is this?
Buffer overflow this attack is an anomaly that happens when software writing data to a buffer overflows the buffer’s capacity, leading to adjacent memory locations being overwritten. In other words, an excessive amount of information is being passed into a container that doesn’t have enough space, which information finishes up replacing data in adjacent containers.Buffer overflows are often exploited by attackers with a goal of modifying a computer’s memory so as to undermine or take hold of program execution.
What’s a buffer?A buffer, or data buffer, is a neighborhood of physical memory storage wont to temporarily store data while it’s being moved from one place to a different . These buffers typically sleep in RAM memory. Computers frequently use buffers to assist improve performance; latest hard drives cash in of buffering to efficiently access data, and lots of online services also use buffers. for instance , buffers are frequently utilized in online video streaming to stop interruption. When a video is streamed, the video player downloads and stores perhaps 20% of the video at a time during a buffer then streams from that buffer. This way, minor drops in connection speed or quick service disruptions won’t affect the video stream performance.Buffers are designed to contain specific amounts of knowledge . Unless the program utilizing the buffer has built-in instructions to discard data when an excessive amount of is shipped to the buffer, the program will overwrite data in memory adjacent to the buffer.Buffer overflows are often exploited by attackers to corrupt software. Despite being well-understood, buffer overflow attacks are still a serious security problem that torment cyber-security teams. In 2014 a threat referred to as ‘heartbleed’ exposed many many users to attack due to a buffer overflow vulnerability in SSL software.
How do attackers exploit buffer overflows?An attacker can deliberately feed a carefully crafted input into a program which will cause the program to undertake and store that input during a buffer that isn’t large enough, overwriting portions of memory connected to the buffer space. If the memory layout of the program is well-defined, the attacker can deliberately overwrite areas known to contain executable code. The attacker can then replace this code together with his own executable code, which may drastically change how the program is meant to figure .For example if the overwritten part in memory contains a pointer (an object that points to a different place in memory) the attacker’s code could replace that code with another pointer that points to an exploit payload. this will transfer control of the entire program over to theattacker’s code.
A user on your Windows 2000 network has discovered that he can use L0phtcrack to sniff the SMB exchanges which carry user logons. The user is plugged into a hub with 23 other systems.
However, he is unable to capture any logons though he knows that other users are logging in.
What do you think is the most likely reason behind this?
In both pharming and phishing attacks, an attacker can create websites that look similar to legitimate sites with the intent of collecting personal identifiable information from its victims.
What is the difference between pharming and phishing attacks?
Password cracking programs reverse the hashing process to recover passwords. (True/False.)
Robin, an attacker, is attempting to bypass the firewalls of an organization through the DNS tunneling method in order to exfiltrate data. He is using the NSTX tool for bypassing the firewalls. On which of the following ports should Robin run the NSTX tool?
DNS uses Ports 53 which is almost always open on systems, firewalls, and clients to transmit DNS queries. instead of the more familiar Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) these queries use User Datagram Protocol (UDP) due to its low-latency, bandwidth and resource usage compared TCP-equivalent queries. UDP has no error or flow-control capabilities, nor does it have any integrity checking to make sure the info arrived intact.How is internet use (browsing, apps, chat etc) so reliable then? If the UDP DNS query fails (it’s a best-effort protocol after all) within the first instance, most systems will retry variety of times and only after multiple failures, potentially switch to TCP before trying again; TCP is additionally used if the DNS query exceeds the restrictions of the UDP datagram size – typically 512 bytes for DNS but can depend upon system settings.Figure 1 below illustrates the essential process of how DNS operates: the client sends a question string (for example, mail.google[.]com during this case) with a particular type – typically A for a number address. I’ve skipped the part whereby intermediate DNS systems may need to establish where ‘.com’ exists, before checking out where ‘google[.]com’ are often found, and so on.
Many worms and scanners are created to seek out and exploit systems running telnet. Given these facts, it’s really no surprise that telnet is usually seen on the highest Ten Target Ports list. Several of the vulnerabilities of telnet are fixed. They require only an upgrade to the foremost current version of the telnet Daemon or OS upgrade. As is usually the case, this upgrade has not been performed on variety of devices. this might flow from to the very fact that a lot of systems administrators and users don’t fully understand the risks involved using telnet. Unfortunately, the sole solution for a few of telnets vulnerabilities is to completely discontinue its use. the well-liked method of mitigating all of telnets vulnerabilities is replacing it with alternate protocols like ssh. Ssh is capable of providing many of an equivalent functions as telnet and a number of other additional services typical handled by other protocols like FTP and Xwindows. Ssh does still have several drawbacks to beat before it can completely replace telnet. it’s typically only supported on newer equipment. It requires processor and memory resources to perform the info encryption and decryption. It also requires greater bandwidth than telnet thanks to the encryption of the info . This paper was written to assist clarify how dangerous the utilization of telnet are often and to supply solutions to alleviate the main known threats so as to enhance the general security of the web
Once a reputation is resolved to an IP caching also helps: the resolved name-to-IP is usually cached on the local system (and possibly on intermediate DNS servers) for a period of your time . Subsequent queries for an equivalent name from an equivalent client then don’t leave the local system until said cache expires. Of course, once the IP address of the remote service is understood , applications can use that information to enable other TCP-based protocols, like HTTP, to try to to their actual work, for instance ensuring internet cat GIFs are often reliably shared together with your colleagues.So, beat all, a couple of dozen extra UDP DNS queries from an organization’s network would be fairly inconspicuous and will leave a malicious payload to beacon bent an adversary; commands could even be received to the requesting application for processing with little difficulty.
Robin, a professional hacker, targeted an organization's network to sniff all the traffic. During this process.
Robin plugged in a rogue switch to an unused port in the LAN with a priority lower than any other switch in the network so that he could make it a root bridge that will later allow him to sniff all the traffic in the network.
What is the attack performed by Robin in the above scenario?
STP prevents bridging loops in a redundant switched network environment. By avoiding loops, you can ensure that broadcast traffic does not become a traffic storm.
STP is a hierarchical tree-like topology with a “root” switch at the top. A switch is elected as root based on the lowest configured priority of any switch (0 through 65,535). When a switch boots up, it begins a process of identifying other switches and determining the root bridge. After a root bridge is elected, the topology is established from its perspective of the connectivity. The switches determine the path to the root bridge, and all redundant paths are blocked. STP sends configuration and topology change notifications and acknowledgments (TCN/TCA) using bridge protocol data units (BPDU).
An STP attack involves an attacker spoofing the root bridge in the topology. The attacker broadcasts out an STP configuration/topology change BPDU in an attempt to force an STP recalculation. The BPDU sent out announces that the attacker’s system has a lower bridge priority. The attacker can then see a variety of frames forwarded from other switches to it. STP recalculation may also cause a denial-of-service (DoS) condition on the network by causing an interruption of 30 to 45 seconds each time the root bridge changes. An attacker using STP network topology changes to force its host to be elected as the root bridge.
You want to analyze packets on your wireless network. Which program would you use?
Shellshock allowed an unauthorized user to gain access to a server. It affected many Internet-facing services, which OS did it not directly affect?
Based on the following extract from the log of a compromised machine, what is the hacker really trying to steal?
Bill has been hired as a penetration tester and cyber security auditor for a major credit card company. Which information security standard is most applicable to his role?
Which of the following allows attackers to draw a map or outline the target organization's network infrastructure to know about the actual environment that they are going to hack.
Susan, a software developer, wants her web API to update other applications with the latest information. For this purpose, she uses a user-defined HTTP tailback or push APIs that are raised based on trigger events: when invoked, this feature supplies data to other applications so that users can instantly receive real-time Information.
Which of the following techniques is employed by Susan?
Webhooks are one of a few ways internet applications will communicate with one another.
It allows you to send real-time data from one application to another whenever a given event happens.
For example, let’s say you’ve created an application using the Foursquare API that tracks when people check into your restaurant. You ideally wish to be able to greet customers by name and provide a complimentary drink when they check in.
What a webhook will is notify you any time someone checks in, therefore you’d be able to run any processes that you simply had in your application once this event is triggered.
The data is then sent over the web from the application wherever the event originally occurred, to the receiving application that handles the data.
Here’s a visual representation of what that looks like:
A webhook url is provided by the receiving application, and acts as a phone number that the other application will call once an event happens.
Only it’s more complicated than a phone number, because data about the event is shipped to the webhook url in either JSON or XML format. this is known as the “payload.”
Here’s an example of what a webhook url looks like with the payload it’s carrying:
What are Webhooks? Webhooks are user-defined HTTP callback or push APIs that are raised based on events triggered, such as comment received on a post and pushing code to the registry. A webhook allows an application to update other applications with the latest information. Once invoked, it supplies data to the other applications, which means that users instantly receive real-time information. Webhooks are sometimes called “Reverse APIs” as they provide what is required for API specification, and the developer should create an API to use a webhook. A webhook is an API concept that is also used to send text messages and notifications to mobile numbers or email addresses from an application when a specific event is triggered. For instance, if you search for something in the online store and the required item is out of stock, you click on the “Notify me” bar to get an alert from the application when that item is available for purchase. These notifications from the applications are usually sent through webhooks.
Email is transmitted across the Internet using the Simple Mail Transport Protocol. SMTP does not encrypt email, leaving the information in the message vulnerable to being read by an unauthorized person. SMTP can upgrade a connection between two mail servers to use TLS. Email transmitted by SMTP over TLS is encrypted. What is the name of the command used by SMTP to transmit email over TLS?
Leverox Solutions hired Arnold, a security professional, for the threat intelligence process. Arnold collected information about specific threats against the organization. From this information, he retrieved contextual information about security events and incidents that helped him disclose potential risks and gain insight into attacker methodologies. He collected the information from sources such as humans, social media, and chat rooms as well as from events that resulted in cyberattacks. In this process, he also prepared a report that includes identified malicious activities, recommended courses of action, and warnings for emerging attacks. What is the type of threat intelligence collected by Arnold in the above scenario?
Richard, an attacker, targets an MNC In this process, he uses a footprinting technique to gather as much information as possible. Using this technique, he gathers domain information such as the target domain name, contact details of its owner, expiry date, and creation date. With this information, he creates a map of the organization's network and misleads domain owners with social engineering to obtain internal details of its network. What type of footprinting technique is employed by Richard?
A company’s security policy states that all Web browsers must automatically delete their HTTP browser cookies upon terminating. What sort of security breach is this policy attempting to mitigate?
What is a NULL scan?
If executives are found liable for not properly protecting their company’s assets and information systems, what type of law would apply in this situation?